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The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function–Adult Version (BRIEF-A; Gioia et al., 2005) captures views of an adult’s executive functions or self-regulation in their everyday environment. Separate parallel self-report and informant forms include 75 items rated on a 3-point Likert scale (Never, Sometimes, Often). Administration takes 10–15 minutes and can be done using paper-and-pencil forms or online via PARiConnect. Internal consistency coefficients for the Self-Report Form range from .73 to .98 across normative and clinical samples; for the Informant Report Form, from .80 to .98. Test–retest correlations for the Self-Report Form range from .82 to .94; for the Informant Report Form, from .91 to .96.
The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function–Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003) is a rating scale for parents and teachers of preschool-aged children. The BRIEF-P assesses everyday behaviors associated with executive functions in the home and preschool environments. The 63-item rating scale measures multiple aspects of executive function. Administration takes 10–15 minutes and can be done using paper-and-pencil forms or online via PARiConnect. Internal consistency reliability is high (.80–.95 for the parent sample, .90–.97 for the teacher sample), with test–retest reliability ranging from .78–.90 for the parent sample and .64–.94 for the teacher sample.
The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Second Edition (BRIEF2; Gioia et al., 2015) is the gold-standard rating form for executive function for children ages 5 to 18 years. Parallel parent (63 items), teacher (63 items), and self-report (55 items) forms measure a child’s cognitive, behavioral, and emotional regulation. Items are rated on a 3-point Likert scale (Never, Sometimes, Often). Administration takes 10 minutes and can be done using paper-and-pencil forms or online via PARiConnect. Twelve-item screening versions (available for all three forms) take 5–10 minutes to administer. Internal consistency coefficients were high for all scale, index, and composite scores in both the clinical and standardization samples: Parent Form ranges from .76 to .97; Teacher Form ranges from .85 to .98; and Self-Report Form ranges from .71 to .97. Test–retest reliability coefficients for the Parent Form range from .67 to .92; for the Teacher Form, from .76 to .90, and for the Self-Report Form, from .61 to .85.
The Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD; Bracken & Howell, 2004) assesses depressive symptomatology in individuals ages 8 to 79 years. The CAD is a 50-item self-report instrument that is closely aligned with the hallmarks of depression in children, adolescents, and adults as well as the additional seven criteria for major depressive episodes listed in the DSM-IV-TR™. The CAD Total Scale, symptom scales (i.e., Depressed Mood, Anxiety/Worry, Diminished Interest, Cognitive and Physical Fatigue), and critical item clusters (i.e., Hopelessness, Self-Devaluation, Sleep/Fatigue, Failure, Worry, Nervous) represent a well-defined and theoretically supported measure of depressive symptomatology. The CAD takes 10 minutes to administer via paper and pencil or online. Three validity scales—Inconsistency, Negative Impression, and Infrequency—make the assessment more efficient than other well-known depression assessment scales.
The Child and Adolescent Memory Profile (ChAMP; Sherman & Brooks, 2015) is a test of visual and verbal memory for use with individuals ages 5 to 21 years. It allows both in-depth memory evaluation and memory screening. The ChAMP includes two verbal memory and two visual memory subtests that combine to yield an overall score, the Total Memory Index. Additional index scores reflect performance in visual and verbal memory and immediate and delayed memory. The full assessment can be administered in less than 40 minutes. The Screening Index is composed of one verbal and one visual subtest and can be completed in less than 15 minutes.
The Dementia Rating Scale–2 (DRS–2; Mattis, 2001) measures overall cognitive impairment in adults ages 56–105. This test contains 5 subscales that provide additional information on specific abilities: Attention, Initiation/Perseveration, Construction, Conceptualization, and Memory. Administration takes 15–30 minutes and can be administered via paper and pen; scoring can be completed manually or online through PARiConnect. This test also includes an alternative form to reduce practice effects and facilitate retesting and the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Reliability between these forms is strong, with a correlation coefficient of .82 for the Total Score and correlation coefficients ranging from .66 to .80 for the subscales.
The Evaluation of Competency to Stand Trial–Revised (ECST-R; Rogers, Tillbrook, & Sewell, 1998) is a semi-structured interview designed to assess dimensions of competency to stand trial as propounded in Dusky v. United States (1960) and consistently affirmed in subsequent Supreme Court decisions. The ECST-R, administered in paper and pencil format, takes 25–45 minutes to administer. The ECST-R not only assesses actual incompetency to stand trial via 18 items and 3 individual scales, but also provides a systematic screening for feigned incompetency to stand trial, with questions probing purported impairment and symptomatology specifically germane to competency issues. This test was validated on defendants with a range of cognitive abilities and can be used with most individuals within the ages of 18 to 79 years.
The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT; Euler, 2007) is a standardized, norm-referenced scale designed to assist in the identification of children (ages 5 to 18 years) who qualify for the federal special education category of emotional disturbance (ED). It is based on criteria in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) with separate forms available for teachers (EDDT; 153 items), parents (EDDT-PF; 185 items), and students (EDDT-SR; 136 items). Administration takes 15–20 minutes and can be done using paper-and-pencil forms or online via PARiConnect. Internal consistency for all forms is high, with the EDDT Total score coefficient at .94, the EDDT-PF at .96, and the EDDT-SR at .93. Test–retest stability is also high (EDDT = .92; EDDT-PF = .98; EDDT-SR = .88), and interrater reliability is good for the Total score (EDDT = .84; EDDT-PF = .87; EDDT-SR: parent/self = .55, teacher/self = .43).
The Feifer Assessment of Childhood Trauma (FACT): Teacher Form (Feifer, 2021) features 79 items designed to convey how stress and trauma impact children ages 4–18 years in a school-based setting. Administration takes 10 minutes and is done by a classroom teacher or other educator online via PARiConnect. Internal consistency coefficients range from .87 to .97 for the total sample on all scales, and test–retest coefficients range from .76 to .88.
The Feifer Assessment of Mathematics (FAM; Feifer & Clark, 2016) is designed for students in Grades prekindergarten through college and comprises 19 individual subtests measuring various aspects of math fact retrieval, numeric and spatial memory, perceptual estimation skills, linguistic math concepts, and core number sense development. Administration is done using paper-and-pencil materials and takes 35 minutes for PreK; 50 minutes for K–Grade 2; 60 minutes for Grade 3+; and 15 minutes for the Screening Form. Scoring can be completed online via PARiConnect. Median internal consistency coefficients for the FAM subtests range from .71 to .93, the majority of which are in the upper .80s and lower .90s; for the FAM indexes, they range from .93 to .98. The majority of test–retest coefficients are in the .80s and .90s, indicating a high degree of temporal stability.
The Feifer Assessment of Reading (FAR; Feifer & Gerhardstein Nader, 2015) is designed for students in Grades prekindergarten through college and comprises 15 individual subtests measuring various aspects of vocabulary, phonological awareness, decoding skills, rapid automatic naming, orthographical processing, morphological processing, word memory, reading fluency (word and story; silent and oral), and comprehension skills. Administration is done using paper-and-pencil materials and takes 35 minutes for PK; 60 minutes for K–Grade 1; 75 minutes for Grade 2+; and 15–20 minutes for the Screening Form. Scoring can be completed online via PARiConnect. FAR subtests have median reliability coefficients that range from .67 to .95, the majority of which are in the upper .80s and .90s, indicating an overall high degree of internal consistency. The FAR demonstrates consistent relationships in the expected direction and magnitude with a variety of external variables including grade; other reading tests; and measures of achievement, memory, and intelligence.
The Feifer Assessment of Writing (FAW; Feifer, 2020) is designed for students in Grades prekindergarten through college and comprises 10 primary subtests and two additional optional subtests designed to measure three subtypes of written language disorders or dysgraphia: graphomotor dysgraphia, dyslexic dysgraphia, and executive dysgraphia. Administration is done using paper-and-pencil materials and takes 5 minutes for PreK; 20 minutes for K–Grade 1; 55–65 minutes for Grades 2+; and 15–20 minutes for the Screening Form. Scoring can be completed online via PARiConnect. Median internal consistency coefficients for the FAW subtests range from .73 to .92 (with the exception of two subtests), the majority of which are in the .80s and .90s,; for the FAM indexes, they range from .89 to .95. The majority of test–retest coefficients are .70 or higher, with index coefficients in the .80s and .90s, indicating a high degree of temporal stability.
The Kane Learning Difficulties Assessment (KLDA; Kane, 2016) is a 120-item self-report screening form that measures risk of learning difficulties and ADHD for college students and adults ages 17 years and older. Items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale (Agree Completely, Agree Somewhat, Neutral, Disagree Somewhat, and Disagree Completely). Testing takes 15 minutes and can be done using a paper-and-pencil form or online via PARiConnect. Scoring is exclusively through PARiConnect. No special training is required to administer or score. The average alpha coefficient for the subscales and scales is .86, indicating good internal consistency, and a 30-day test–retest reliability coefficient of .87 on the Overall Academic Risk score demonstrates a high degree of temporal stability.
The Multidimensional Anxiety Questionnaire (MAQ; Reynolds, 1999) is a 40-item multidimensional self-report measure comprising four subscales that provide a global assessment of anxiety symptomatology: Physiologic-Panic, Social Phobia, Worry-Fears, and Negative Affectivity. The test can be completed in 10 minutes using paper and pencil by individuals ages 18 to 89 years. High alpha coefficients of .96 were found for the MAQ Total scale as well as coefficients ranging from .88 to .91 for the MAQ subscales. Test–retest reliability is very high, .95 for the MAQ Total scale and ranging from .90 to .93 for the subscales. Clinical validity is demonstrated by the strong diagnostic efficacy of the MAQ cutoff score. There is separate normative data for community adults and college students.
The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool–Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA; Hoge, Bonnie, Poythress, & Monahan, 1996) is a 22-item structured interview for the pretrial assessment of adjudicative competence. The MacCAT-CA uses a vignette format and objectively scored questions to standardize the measurement of three competence-related abilities: understanding, reasoning, and appreciation. The eight understanding and eight reasoning items are designed to distance the defendant from his or her case via 16 queries of a hypothetical crime. The six appreciation items query defendants about their attitudes and beliefs concerning the legal process as it surrounds their own cases. The MacCAT-CA is a paper and pencil assessment that takes 25–55 minutes to complete, is suitable for individuals ages 18 to 80 years, and has been validated with three groups of criminal defendants with varying competence levels and mental illness treatment histories.
The Multidimensional Everyday Memory Ratings for Youth (MEMRY; Sherman & Brooks; 2017) is the only nationally standardized rating scale specifically designed to measure everyday memory in children, adolescents, and young adults. It measures daily memory, learning, and executive aspects of memory, including working memory. In less than 5 minutes, the MEMRY provides a rapid screening for memory problems in youth and an ecologically relevant assessment of memory in everyday life. MEMRY results can be used to determine whether a more comprehensive evaluation is required or as a core component of a comprehensive assessment for youth suspected of memory problems. A parent and teacher report can be used with individuals ages 5-19 years and a self-report form can be used with individuals 9-21 years to provide multiple perspectives about memory capacity from different raters. The MEMRY provides an overall score, the Everyday Memory Index (EMI), as well as scales that tap learning, daily memory, and executive/working memory and three validity scales (Implausibility, Inconsistency, and Maximizing). Validity scales are designed to flag protocols that are likely to reflect inconsistent, exaggerated, or implausible responses and include sophisticated validity indicators designed to detect exaggeration and feigning.
The Multidimensional Health Profile—Health Functioning Form (MHP-H; Ruehlman et al., 1998) is a 69-item, self-report screening form for adults ages 18 to 90 years that measures health functioning and risk. Items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (Not At All Likely) to 5 (Very Likely) and evaluate five major areas of concern: response to illness, health habits, adult health history, health care utilization, and health beliefs and attitudes. Testing takes 15 minutes and can be done using a paper-and-pencil form or online via PARiConnect. Results provide clinicians with insight to help improve health care quality and outcomes. Test-retest reliability coefficients of the MHP scales in a subsample of the national development sample ranged from .44 to .89. Test-retest reliability coefficients of the Mental Health scales on the MHP in a sample of undergraduate college students ranged from .71 to .88.
The Mini-Mental State Examination, Second Edition (MMSE-2; Folstein & Folstein, 2010) measures cognitive status and screens for and estimates the severity of cognitive impairment in individuals 18 years and older. The MMSE-2 is ideal for use in populations with milder forms of cognitive impairment, including subcortical dementia. The MMSE-2 is offered in a variety of forms for administration lengths via paper and pencil, it and can be completed in 5 to 20 minutes. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from .94 to .99.
The Memory Validity Profile (MVP; Sherman & Brooks; 2015) is a performance validity test (PVT) for children, adolescents, and young adults that covers visual and verbal domains. The MVP is the first stand-alone PVT specifically designed for, nationally standardized on, and validated for use with children, adolescents, and young adults ages 5-21 years. It can be administered in 5–7 minutes using a Stimulus Book and the Record Form. The Visual subtest yields an MVP Visual score, and the Verbal subtest yields an MVP Verbal score; when combined, these scores make up the overall MVP Total score. In a study conducted during development, the MVP cutoff scores had 100% sensitivity and specificity in detecting feigned memory impairment.
The Older Adult Cognitive Screener (OACS; Reynolds & Bigler, 2020) is completed by an informed observer such as family and friends or caregivers of an individual aged 55–90 to screen for neurocognitive impairment. It is administered and scored online via PARiConnect. The OACS is the only screening tool that maps directly onto the six principal domains of neurocognitive function defined in the DSM-5-TR™: executive function, complex attention, language, perceptual–motor, social cognition, and learning and memory. This test can be administered and scored in less than 10 minutes and assists professionals in making assertions about the individual’s mental status and in determining if further testing is necessary. Internal consistency reliability for the overall standardization and dementia clinical samples were .88 and .92, respectively.
The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) features 344 items across 22 nonoverlapping scales, including 11 clinical scales divided into three broad classes (neurotic, psychotic, and behavior disorder/impulse control); five treatment consideration scales, four validity scales, and two interpersonal scales. Indicators of potential crisis situations are identified by 27 critical items. Administration takes 25–55 minutes and can be done via a paper-and-pencil form or online via PARiConnect. Internal consistency is high across three large samples: community-dwelling adults (N = 1,000); patients from 69 clinical sites (N = 1,246), and college students (N = 1,051). Validity studies demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with more than 50 other measures of psychopathology. Test–retest reliability coefficients range from .66 to .94 on the clinical scales over a period of 2 to 4 weeks.
The PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI; Cohen & Sudhalter, 1999) is an informant-based rating scale completed by parents and/or teachers designed to assist in the assessment of children ages 1 year, 6 months to 18 years, 5 months who have been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The PDDBI was developed to assess both problem behaviors as well as appropriate social, language, and learning/memory skills. Administration takes 20 to 30 minutes for the standard version and 30 to 45 minutes for the extended version. Testing can be done using a paper-and-pencil form or online via PARiConnect. Test-retest stability for the teacher ratings ranged from .65 to .99 over an average 2-week interval. For the parent sample, test-retest stability ratings ranged from .38 to .91 over a 12-month interval.
The Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition (PSI-4; Abidin, 2012) is a 120-item measure used to explore parental stress levels related to a parent’s relationship with one of their children between the ages of 1 month and 12 years. The PSI-4 offers 120 items that can be administered on paper or online in about 20 minutes. It focuses on three major domains of stress: child characteristics, parent characteristics, and situational/demographic life stress. Alpha reliability coefficients ranged from .78 to .88 for the Child Domain subscales and from .75 to .87 for the Parent Domain subscales. Reliability coefficients for the two domains and the Total Stress scale were .96 or greater, indicating a high degree of internal consistency. Test–retest reliability coefficients ranged from .55 to .82 for the Child Domain, from .69 to .91 for the Parent Domain, and from .65 to .96 for the Total Stress score. Validity has been investigated in studies that focused on at-risk children, attachment, ADHD, child abuse, forensic contexts, medical treatment adherence, substance abuse, parental depression, and more. A 36-item screening form is also available.
The Rogers Criminal Responsibility Assessment Scales (R-CRAS; Rogers, 1984) provides data for an empirically based approach to evaluating criminal responsibility. This untimed test can be administered on paper to systematically quantify impairment at the time of a crime, relate impairment to the appropriate legal standard, and render an expert opinion with regard to that standard. This two-part assessment provides the degree of impairment on psychological variables significant to the determination of insanity and renders an accurate opinion on criminal responsibility meeting the guilty-but-mentally-ill and M’Naghten standards. The average alpha coefficient of the R-CRAS summary scales is .60, with the mean reliability coefficient for individual variables at .58. The overall percentage of agreement for the decision variables in 91% with an average kappa coefficient of .81.
Reynolds Child Depression Scale–2nd Edition (RCDS-2; Reynolds, 2010) measures depressive symptoms in children in Grades 2–6 by asking questions about how they have been feeling during the past 2 weeks. All items are worded in the present tense to elicit current symptoms status. This assessment is suitable for children ages 7–13 and is available for paper and pencil or online administration and scoring via PARiConnect. Assessment takes 10–15 minutes. A standardization sample of students drawn from 11 states is stratified to match U.S. Census statistics for gender and ethnic background. The RCDS-2 features a critical score alerting the administrator the client may need immediate attention and also features a clinical cutoff score to help determine whether a child should be referred for further evaluation. A short form is available.
The Reynolds Depression Screening Inventory (RDSI; Reynolds & Kobak, 1998) features 19 items that measure the severity of contemporary depressive symptoms and quickly assesses DSM-IV-specified symptomatology for major depressive disorder. This self-report form is designed for individuals ages 18 to 89 years. Highly reliable and internally consistent, with high alpha coefficients (.93 and .90 for the community and psychiatric outpatient samples, respectively). Test–retest reliability of the RDSI also is very high (rtt = .94). Although a formal diagnosis is not provided, empirically derived cutoff scores identify individuals who may be at risk for more serious, diagnostic forms of depression.
The Standardized Assessment of Miranda Abilities (SAMA; Rogers, Sewell, Drogin, & Fiduccia, 2012) features five measurements that enable forensic psychologists to assess an individual’s comprehension of their Miranda rights through a structured interview. The most comprehensive assessment of Miranda decision making available, the SAMA assesses knowledge, belief, and misconceptions that may affect a client’s choice to exercise or waive Miranda rights as well as understanding of the vocabulary and wording typically used Miranda warnings. The SAMA is appropriate for use with defendants who may have lower verbal or intellectual abilities and who are 18–99 years old. Extensive validation studies were conducted for all five SAMA measures using samples of pretrial defendants with pending criminal charges.
The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC; Briere, 2001) features 54 items rated on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (Never) to 3 (Almost all of the time) that evaluate posttraumatic stress and related psychological symptomatology in children ages 8–16 years who have experienced traumatic events, such as physical or sexual abuse, major loss, or natural disasters, or who have been a witness to violence. Administration takes 15–20 minutes and can be done using a paper-and-pencil form or online via PARiConnect. A 44-item alternate version excludes the sexual symptom items. The TSCC scales are internally consistent (alpha coefficients for clinical scales range from .77 to .89 in the standardization sample) and exhibit reasonable convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity in normative and clinical samples.
The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC; Briere, 2005) features 90 items rated on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (Not At All) to 4 (Very Often) for caretakers of young children ages 3–12 years who have been exposed to traumatic events such as child abuse, peer assault, and community violence. Administration takes 15–20 minutes and can be done using a paper-and-pencil form or online via PARiConnect. Internal consistency coefficients for the clinical scales range from .78 to .93 across samples, and test–retest coefficients range from .68 to .96 for the standardization sample.
The Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 (TSI-2; Briere, 2011) features 136 items rated on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (Never) to 3 (Often) that assess a wide range of potentially complex symptomatology from PTSD, dissociation, and somatization to insecure attachment styles, impaired self-capacities, and dysfunctional behaviors. Administration takes 20 minutes and can be done using a paper-and-pencil form or online via PARiConnect. A 126-item alternate version excludes the sexual symptom items. Internal consistency coefficients range from .74 to .94 across the clinical scales and factors. Test–retest correlations range from .76 to .96, with one expected exception (Suicide-Behavior).
Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, 2nd Edition (RADS-2; Reynolds, 1987) identifies depressive symptoms in adolescents. The RADS-2 is a 30-item self-report that measures the four basic dimensions of depression: Dysphoric Mood, Anhedonia/Negative Affect, Negative Self-Evaluation, and Somatic Complaints. This assessment takes 5–10 minutes, is suitable for individuals ages 11–20, and is available for paper and pencil or online administration and scoring via PARiConnect. An empirically derived clinical cutoff score helps to identify adolescents who may be at risk for a depressive or a related disorder. Data demonstrate the ability of this cutoff score to discriminate between adolescents with major depressive disorder and an age- and gender-matched control group. Reliability and validity studies included a school-based sample of more than 9,000 adolescents and a clinical sample of adolescents with DSM-III-R™ or DSM-IV™ diagnoses who were evaluated in both school and clinical settings. A short form is available.