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Gray Oral Reading Tests, Fifth Edition

J. Lee Wiederholt, EdD, and Brian R. Bryant, PhD

Assesses oral reading skills
Paper and pencil
Age range:
6 years to 23 years, 11 months
20–30 minutes
Qualification level:
A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in psychology, counseling, speech-language pathology, or a closely related field plus satisfactory completion of coursework in test interpretation, psychometrics and measurement theory, educational statistics, or a closely related area; or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. Close

The Gray Oral Reading Test for Children and Adults Helps Diagnose Oral Reading Issues


One of the most widely used measures of oral reading fluency and comprehension in the United States, the GORT series has been updated and improved. Two equivalent forms (Form A and Form B) each contain 16 developmentally sequenced reading passages with five comprehension questions each. An optional miscue analysis system allows reading specialists to analyze reading errors and tailor interventions to specific students’ needs.

Features and benefits

  • Updated norms. New normative data were collected in 2008-2010, and norms have been extended upward to age 23 years, 11 months.
  • Easier and more efficient administration. Basal and ceiling rules have been streamlined to allow for hassle-free administration.
  • Revised items. The comprehension questions were completely revised, and studies show that the items are passage dependent.
  • New psychometrics. Additional studies showing evidence of the test’s reliability and validity were added.

Test structure

The GORT 5 produces four scores and a composite score.

  • The Rate score is derived from the amount of time in seconds taken by a student to read a story aloud.
  • The Accuracy score is derived from the number of words the student pronounces correctly when reading the passage.
  • The Fluency score is a combination of the student’s Rate and Accuracy scores.
  • The Comprehension score is the number of questions about the stories that the student answers correctly. The open-ended format ensures that the items are passage-dependent.
  • The Oral Reading Index (ORI) is a composite score formed by combining students’ Fluency and Comprehension scaled scores.

Technical information

  • For both forms, average internal consistency reliability coefficients exceed .90.
  • The alternate forms reliability coefficients for the ORI exceed .90. The average test-retest coefficients for the ORI for the same form (i.e., Form A to A, Form B to B) exceed .85.
  • The average test-retest coefficient for the ORI for different forms (i.e., Form A to B, Form B to A) is .85.
  • Correlations of the GORT 5 scores with those of other well-known reading measures are large or very large in magnitude.
  • Studies indicate that the GORT 5 is able to accurately identify students with reading difficulties.