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Ruff Figural Fluency Test

Ronald M. Ruff, PhD

Provides information about nonverbal capacity for initiation, planning, and divergent reasoning
Paper and pencil
Age range:
16 years to 70 years
5 minutes (60 seconds for each of the 5 parts)
Qualification level:
All qualifications for Level B plus an advanced professional degree that provides appropriate training in the administration and interpretation of psychological tests, or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. Close

The RFFT was developed to provide clinical information regarding nonverbal capacity for fluid and divergent thinking, ability to shift cognitive set, planning strategies, and executive ability to coordinate this process.

Features and benefits

  • The test booklet consists of five 60-second parts, each with a different stimulus presentation.
  • The respondent draws as many unique designs as possible within 60 seconds by connecting the dots in different patterns. The total number of unique designs drawn constitutes the main score.
  • The Perseverative Errors score represents the number of repetitions of the same pattern drawn by the respondent.
  • The Error Ratio index assesses the respondent’s ability to minimize repetition while maximizing unique productions.
  • Qualitative strategies, such as rotation and enumeration, can also be assessed.

Note: Stopwatch is required for administration.