Sign In   
Sign In        


Mini-Mental State Examination, 2nd Edition

Marshal F. Folstein, MD, and Susan E. Folstein, MD; User's Manual by Marshal F. Folstein, MD, Susan E. Folstein, MD, Travis White, PhD, and Melissa A. Messer, MHS

Screens for cognitive impairment
Paper and pencil, E-Manual
Age range:
18 years and older
5 minutes for the MMSE-2:BV; 10–15 minutes for the MMSE-2: SV; 20 minutes for the MMSE-2: EV; 5 minutes to score
Qualification level:
A degree, certificate, or license to practice in a health care profession or occupation, including (but not limited to) the following: medicine, neurology, nursing, occupational therapy and other allied health care professions, physician's assistants, psychiatry, social work; plus appropriate training and experience in the ethical administration, scoring, and interpretation of clinical behavioral assessment instruments. Certain health care providers may be eligible to purchase selected "B" and "C" level instruments within their area of expertise. Specifically, relevant supervised clinical experience using tests (i.e., internship, residency, etc.) in combination with formal coursework ( i.e., Tests and Measurement, Individual Assessment, or equivalent) qualifies a health care provider to purchase certain restricted products. Any PAR Customer already qualified to purchase a "B" or "C" level product, is also qualified to purchase an "S" level product. If you are not already qualified to purchase a "B"or "C" level product from PAR, please download and complete the special Qualification Form for Medical and Allied Health Professionals. (You will need Adobe Acrobat to view.) Close

With a standard version that is equivalent to the original MMSE and brief and expanded forms, the MMSE-2 retains clinical utility and efficiency while expanding the original’s usefulness in populations with milder forms of cognitive impairment, including subcortical dementia.

Features and benefits

  • Flexibility of administration. With three different versions available, you can select the version that best fits your patients’ needs.
  • Simplicity of scoring. Forms are user-friendly and easy to score.
  • Portable Pocket Norms Guide. T-score conversion tables, reliable change scores (at three levels of statistical significance), and mean raw score tables are provided in both the User’s Manual and the handy Pocket Norms Guide.
  • Equivalent, alternate forms. Blue and Red forms enable you to retest the same patient with reduced practice effects.
  • Simplicity of administration. All versions may be administered by anyone who has been trained to test individuals with cognitive impairment and who is familiar with the administration instructions. No special equipment is required.
  • Clinical relevance. Items have obvious relationships to functional ability in daily life.
  • Expanded meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of studies using the MMSE that appeared in the original MMSE Clinical Guide has been expanded to incorporate studies published between 2001 and 2009 and includes effect sizes.

Test structure

  • MMSE-2: Standard Version. While the structure and scoring of the original 30-point MMSE remain, problematic items were replaced and several tasks were modified to adjust difficulty level. Because the overall difficulty and raw score range remain the same as in the original, MMSE-2:SV scores and MMSE scores are comparable.
  • MMSE-2: Brief Version. Composed entirely of the Registration, Orientation to Time, Orientation to Place, and Recall tasks, the 16-point MMSE-2:BV can be used for clinical or research situations that call for a rapid cognitive screener that requires no stimuli for administration.
  • MMSE-2: Expanded Version. The 90-point MMSE-2:EV is more sensitive to subcortical dementia and to changes associated with aging; it is sufficiently difficult that it does not have a ceiling effect. Two new tasks (Story Memory and Processing Speed) have been added.

Technical information

  • A normative sample of more than 1,500 individuals was used to establish reliability and the normal range of scores; a clinical sample of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and patients with subcortical dementia was tested to establish validity.
  • To help you determine the clinical significance of specific raw scores, the sensitivity, specificity, percent correctly classified, positive predictive power, and negative predictive power of a wide range of raw score cutoffs are presented for each version of the MMSE-2 by clinical group.
  • Internal consistency coefficients ranged from .66 to .79 for the clinical sample. Equivalency of the Blue and Red forms was examined using G coefficients, which were ≥.96 for all three versions. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from .94 to .99.
  • Convergent validity of the MMSE-2 was examined in terms of its correlations with several tests that purport to measure specific aspects of cognitive functions, including the WMS®-III Digit Span Forward and Digit Span Backward subtests, the Category Naming Test, the Boston Naming Test, and the Trail Making Test.

Available in other languages

Note: In order to use a modified version of the MMSE–2, including a modified format or translation, please download and complete the Permission Request Form.