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Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree

Bryan L. Euler, PhD

Assesses emotional disturbance from the teacher's perspective
Paper and pencil, Online administration and scoring via PARiConnect, E-Manual
Age range:
5 years to 18 years
15–20 minutes; 10 minutes to score
Qualification level:
A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in psychology, counseling, speech-language pathology, or a closely related field plus satisfactory completion of coursework in test interpretation, psychometrics and measurement theory, educational statistics, or a closely related area; or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. Close

Use the EDDT to Prepare Evaluations and Get Your Students the Special Education Support They Need


The first instrument of its kind to provide a standardized approach to the assessment of emotional disturbance (ED), the EDDT encompasses all the federal criteria and addresses the broad emotional and behavioral nuances of children who may require special education services for ED.

Features and benefits

  • From the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (2002) and the reauthorization of IDEA (2004), the federal criteria mandate that certain conditions be present in order to receive services but don’t provide assessment guidelines. The EDDT includes five sections that correlate with the specific components of the federal criteria, enabling you to work through each criterion one by one.
  • Because the criteria specify that socially maladjusted children can’t qualify for services unless they are both socially maladjusted and emotionally disturbed, the EDDT treats social maladjustment as a supplemental trait and assesses it separately from ED.


The EDDT Family

The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT) family of products are the first of their kind that provide a standardized approach to assessing emotional disturbance (ED).

  • The EDDT, EDDT-PF, and EDDT-SR are based on the criteria presented in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) with scales that map directly onto this criteria.
  • All three tests address the broad emotional and behavioral nuances of children who may require special education services for ED.
  • Multi-Rater Summary Form can be used in conjunction with the EDDT, EDDT-PF, and EDDT-SR to review responses from multiple raters over time to create a well-rounded picture of an individual's functioning.



  • The EDDT Multi-Rater Summary Report is available for no charge. This report combines EDDT scores from up to four raters (parent, teacher, and self-report) to provide a well-rounded view of student functioning. It includes a combined score profile to represent similarities and differences between raters graphically and highlights statistically significant score differences. The EDDT Criteria Table aligns each rater’s scores to the federal criteria for ED diagnosis. To view a sample report, click the Resources tab above.
  • White papers: A white paper on identifying emotional disturbance using PAR products, including the EDDT, is available. Supplemental material from Jenny A. Greene and EDDT author Bryan L. Euler explains how to use the EDDT family of rating forms to gain multiple perspectives