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Kane Learning Difficulties Assessment

Steven T. Kane, PhD; Professional Manual by Steven T. Kane, PhD, and Heddy Kovach Clark, PhD

Screens college students for learning difficulties and ADHD
Paper and pencil, Online administration and scoring via PARiConnect, E-Manual
Age range:
17 years and older
15 minutes
Qualification level:
No special qualifications are required, although the range of products eligible for purchase is limited. Close

The KLDA quickly screens college students who may be at risk for learning difficulties and ADHD.

Features and benefits

  • Measures an individual's academic strengths and weaknesses in key areas, including reading, writing, math, listening, concentration, memory, organization, time management, oral presentation, self-control, and anxiety.
  • Provides users with a comparative sense of their academic skills in relation to their peers using means, standard deviations, and percentile scores.
  • Helps identify individuals at risk for learning difficulties who should seek further assessment.
  • Helps identify individuals with other issues that affect learning, such as anxiety, memory, or functional problems like organization and procrastination.
  • Can be used with students in vocational schools, technical colleges, community colleges, 4-year colleges and universities, and graduate schools.
  • Suggests recommendations for interventions and accommodations for each scale and subscale weakness.

Test structure

  • Features one self-report form that contains 120 items contributing to nine scales and 14 subscales. The scales and subscales contribute to an Overall Academic Risk score. Items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale.
  • Administration can be completed with pencil and paper or online from any computer 24/7 via PARiConnect.
  • Scoring and reporting is completed exclusively through PARiConnect, with a Student Feedback Report generated for the student and a Score Report generated for the test administrator.
  • Testing takes just 15 minutes.
  • An A-level product, so no special training is required to administer or score.

Technical information

  • Based on the Learning Difficulties Assessment (LDA), an online platform active from June 2011 to June 2015.
  • Normative sample (N = 981) consisted of students enrolled in postsecondary education who had not been diagnosed with or suspected of having a learning disorder.
  • Reliable: Average alpha coefficient for scales and subscales is .86.
  • Valid: Studies have found that the KLDA Overall Academic Risk score can successfully predict learning disability (LD)/ADHD diagnosis, attitude toward being academically successful, and self-reported LD severity.