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State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory–2

Charles D. Spielberger, PhD, ABPP

Measures the experience, expression, and control of anger
Paper and pencil, Online administration and scoring via PARiConnect, Software, Book
Age range:
16 years to 63 years
5-10 minutes
Qualification level:
A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in psychology, counseling, speech-language pathology, or a closely related field plus satisfactory completion of coursework in test interpretation, psychometrics and measurement theory, educational statistics, or a closely related area; or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. Close

The STAXI-2 was developed to assess state anger, trait anger, and anger expression and to measure the way these components contribute to medical conditions. To investigate the effects of anger on mental and physical disorders, the experience of anger must be clearly distinguished from anger expression and anger control.

Features and benefits

  • Helps identify individuals who tend to suppress their anger.
  • The State Anger scale assesses the intensity of anger as an emotional state at a particular time; it includes three subscales.
  • The Trait Anger scale measures how often angry feelings are experienced over time; it includes two subscales.
  • The Anger Expression and Anger Control scales assess four relatively independent anger-related traits: expression of angry feelings toward other persons or objects in the environment (Anger Expression-Out), holding in or suppressing angry feelings (Anger Expression-In), controlling angry feelings by preventing the expression of anger toward other persons or objects in the environment (Anger Control-Out), and controlling suppressed angry feelings by calming down or cooling off (Anger Control-In).
  • The Anger Expression Index is an overall measure of total anger expression.
  • Raw score to T-score and percentile conversions provided for all scales and subscales by gender.

Interpretive software available

The unlimited-use STAXI-2:IR, by Peter R. Vagg, PhD and Charles D. Spielberger, PhD, provides interpretation of STAXI-2 scores based on hand-entry of item scores. The software examines an individual’s scale and subscale scores and generates a comprehensive interpretive report based on research findings.

Available in Spanish

STAXI-2 materials, including the manual, have been translated into European Spanish and designed especially for Spanish-speaking clinicians and their clients. Normative data were collected primarily in Spain, with additional data collected in some Latin American countries. Certain test items and stimuli in this translation vary from the English version because of cultural and linguistic differences between the countries and their language. Learn more or order.


A comprehensive list of research articles related to the STAXI is available via Mendeley, a free reference management tool. After accessing the link, you will be prompted to create an account. A white paper describing how to use this research repository can be found here. Use of this resource is encouraged to facilitate research using the STAXI. Both the list and the white paper are available in the Resources tab above.