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Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition

Joseph K. Torgesen, PhD, Richard K. Wagner, PhD, and Carol A. Rashotte, PhD

Assesses efficiency of sight word recognition and phonemic decoding
Paper and pencil
Age range:
6 years to 24 years, 11 months
5-10 minutes per form
Qualification level:
A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in psychology, counseling, speech-language pathology, or a closely related field plus satisfactory completion of coursework in test interpretation, psychometrics and measurement theory, educational statistics, or a closely related area; or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. Close

The TOWRE-2 measures an individual’s ability to pronounce printed words (i.e., sight word efficiency) and phonemically regular nonwords (i.e., phonemic decoding efficiency), skills that are critical in the development of overall reading ability.

  • Four alternate and equivalent forms of each subtest are available, making the test even more useful for monitoring progress and evaluating the impact of instructional interventions.
  • The Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) subtest assesses the number of real words that an individual can accurately identify within 45 seconds. Similarly, the Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) subtest measures the number of pronounceable nonwords that an individual can accurately decode within 45 seconds.
  • Revised manual provides extensive new information on the test’s reliability and validity.