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Indices of Psychopathology

Mark A. Blais, PsyD, and Samuel Justin Sinclair, PhD

Measures psychopathology quickly
Paper and pencil, Online administration and scoring via PARiConnect, E-Manual
Age range:
18 years and older
15–20 minutes
Qualification level:
All qualifications for Level B plus an advanced professional degree that provides appropriate training in the administration and interpretation of psychological tests, or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. Close

Also available! Learn more about the development of the SPECTRA with authors Dr. Justin Sinclair and Dr. Mark Blais during an interview with Dr. Jeremy Sharp on The Testing Psychologist podcast and in our blog!

Also available! Learn more about how the SPECTRA provides a hierarchical–dimensional assessment of psychopathology. A free hierarchical interpretation worksheet is provided. Click the Resources tab above or here to view or download. 


The SPECTRA provides a quick hierarchical assessment of adult psychopathology. It can be used to evaluate individuals in a variety of clinical settings, such as inpatient and outpatient clinics, hospitals, schools, and forensic settings.

Features and benefits

  • Measures 12 clinically important constructs (depression, anxiety, social anxiety, post-traumatic stress, alcohol problems, severe aggression, antisocial behavior, drug problems, psychosis, paranoid ideation, manic activation, and grandiose ideation).
  • Constructs are organized into three higher-order psychopathology spectra (Internalizing, Externalizing, and Reality-Impairing).
  • These spectra scores combine to provide a General Psychopathology Index (GPI).
  • Maps on to DSM-5 conditions and links assessment findings to quantitative model research literature.

Test structure

Features 96 self-report items that can be completed and scored via carbonless form, plus three supplemental scales, one validity scale, and one response style indicator.

Technical information

  • Normative data are based on a sample of 1,062 individuals ranging in age from 18 to 91 years representative of the U.S. population.
  • Older adult, college student, and mild and moderate clinical samples were collected.
  • SPECTRA scales correlate highly with the PID-5, PDQ, SBQ-R, PAI, NEO-FFI-3, BRIEF-A, and more.