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CTOPP-2

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing–Second Edition

Richard K. Wagner, PhD, Joseph K. Torgesen, PhD, Carol A. Rashotte, PhD, and Nils A. Pearson, PhD

Purpose:
Assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming
Format:
Paper and pencil, Software
Age range:
4 years to 24 years, 11 months
Time:
40 minutes
Qualification level:
B
B
A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in psychology, counseling, speech-language pathology, or a closely related field plus satisfactory completion of coursework in test interpretation, psychometrics and measurement theory, educational statistics, or a closely related area; or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. Close

The CTOPP-2 is an assessment of reading-related phonological processing skills.

Features and benefits

  • The age range has been lowered in this edition to include 4-year-olds.
  • All-new normative data (N = 1,900), collected in 2008 and 2009, have demographic characteristics representative of the U.S. Census statistics.
  • Floor effects were eliminated by the addition of easier items; ceilings were extended by the addition of more difficult items.
  • A new phonological awareness subtest (Phoneme Isolation) and rapid naming tasks for the youngest examinees were added.

Test structure

  • Subtests include Elision, Blending Words, Sound Matching, Phoneme Isolation, Blending Nonwords, Segmenting Nonwords, Memory for Digits, Nonword Repetition, Rapid Digit Naming, Rapid Letter Naming, Rapid Color Naming, and Rapid Object Naming.
  • Five composite scores are available.
    • The Phonological Awareness Composite Score represents the examinee’s awareness of and access to the phonological structure of oral language.
    • The Phonological Memory Composite Score represents the examinee’s ability to code information phonologically for temporary storage in working or short-term memory.
    • The Rapid Symbolic Naming Composite Score measures the examinee’s ability to include efficient retrieval of phonological information from long-term or permanent memory and execute a sequence of operations quickly and repeatedly.
    • The Rapid Non-Symbolic Naming Composite Score measures the examinee’s ability to include efficient retrieval of phonological information from long-term or permanent memory and execute a sequence of operations quickly and repeatedly using objects and colors.
    • The Alternate Phonological Awareness Composite Score, for examinees ages 7-24 years, measures the examinee’s phonological awareness exclusively with nonwords.
  • The CTOPP-2 yields six types of normative scores; a new Rasch-based developmental score is now available for the nonspeeded subtests.

Technical information

  • Reliability of the CTOPP-2 subtests and composites was demonstrated by average internal consistency coefficients that exceed .80 for all subtests except Nonword Repetition, with an average alpha of .77. The average internal consistency coefficients for the composites were all .85 or higher.
  • Validity of the CTOPP-2 subtests and composites was demonstrated by correlations to measures directly related to the constructs measured by the CTOPP-2. The average coefficients for the subtests range from .49 to .84; those for the composites range from .65 to .76.