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Color Trails Test

Louis F. D'Elia, PhD, Paul Satz, PhD, Craig Lyons Uchiyama, PhD, and Travis White, PhD

Measures sustained attention and sequencing
Paper and pencil
Age range:
18 years to 89 years
3-8 minutes
Qualification level:
All qualifications for Level B plus an advanced professional degree that provides appropriate training in the administration and interpretation of psychological tests, or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. Close

Developed to be free from the influence of language and cultural bias, the CTT assesses sustained attention in adults.

Features and benefits

  • Numbered circles are printed with vivid pink or yellow backgrounds that are perceptible to color-blind individuals. For Part 1, the respondent uses a pencil to rapidly connect circles numbered 1-25 in sequence. For Part 2, the respondent rapidly connects numbered circles in sequence, but alternates between pink and yellow. The length of time to complete each trial is recorded, along with qualitative features of performance indicative of brain dysfunction, such as near-misses, prompts, number sequence errors, and color sequence errors.
  • Retains the sensitivity and specificity of the original Trail Making Test but substitutes color for letters, making it more suitable in cross-cultural and special needs contexts.
  • Instructions may be presented either verbally or with visual cues.
  • The validity of the CTT has been documented in a variety of clinical and neuropsychological populations.

Note. Stopwatch is required for administration. Form A is the standard test form on which normative data were collected and that should be used for clinical evaluation. Forms B, C, and D should be used for research.


A comprehensive list of research articles related to the CTT and CCTT is available via Mendeley, a free reference management tool. After accessing the link, you will be prompted to create an account. A white paper describing how to use this research repository can be found here. Use of this resource is encouraged to facilitate research using the CTT and CCTT products. Both the list and the white paper are available in the Resources tab above.