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Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender® Gestalt Test, Second Edition

Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD

Measures visual-motor integration skills
Paper and pencil
Age range:
5 years to 85 years
5–10 minutes
Qualification level:
A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in psychology, counseling, speech-language pathology, or a closely related field plus satisfactory completion of coursework in test interpretation, psychometrics and measurement theory, educational statistics, or a closely related area; or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. Close

A Less-Structured Task to Measure Visual-Motor Integration Skills


The KOPPITZ-2 is a highly reliable, valid measure of visual-motor integration skills that applies the developmental approach to scoring made so popular by its originator, Dr. Elizabeth Munsterberg Koppitz.

Features and benefits

  • True to original conceptualization but updated to meet current psychometric standards.
  • Requires the examinee to draw increasingly complex figures from a model (the Bender designs, derived from theories of Gestalt psychology) on a plain sheet of white paper and to organize the task independently, effectively assessing the ability to relate visual stimuli accurately to motor responses.
  • Uses a less structured task than other tests of visual-motor integration, thereby providing a more ecologically sound approach to this type of assessment.
  • Extended age range allows for the evaluation of special education students through age 21 years and the evaluation of the visual-motor integration deficits of the growing population of seniors.
  • For older children and adults, both 2- and 3-dimensional drawings are now required that reveal subtle deficits in visual–motor integration processes.

Test structure

  • Provides separate scoring systems for young children (ages 5-7 years) as well as older children and adults (ages 8-85 years and older).
  • Completely nonverbal and useful with individuals from widely varied cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
  • A special chapter of the Examiner’s Manual is devoted to the Koppitz Emotional Indicators (EIs) and their proper use; a specialized scoring form is also provided.

Technical information

  • Normative sample of 3,600 persons is matched to U.S. Census statistics on socioeconomic factors, ethnicity, geographic region, community size, and other critical variables to ensure representativeness of the total population.
  • Reliability coefficients are reported for multiple subgroups, including individuals with various disorders.
  • Internal consistency (alpha) reliabilities for all but one age are greater than .80; the average of reliabilities across ages is .88. The test correlates highly with the WISC®-III Performance Scale and Perceptual Organization Index.
  • Detailed scoring guides and a clear scoring template ensure high levels of interscorer reliability.