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Test of Written Language, Fourth Edition

Donald D. Hammill, EdD, and Stephen C. Larsen, PhD

Measures writing competence
Paper and pencil
Age range:
9 years to 17 years, 11 months
60-90 minutes
Qualification level:
A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in psychology, counseling, speech-language pathology, or a closely related field plus satisfactory completion of coursework in test interpretation, psychometrics and measurement theory, educational statistics, or a closely related area; or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. Close

The TOWL-4 is a norm-referenced, comprehensive diagnostic test of written expression that identifies students who need special help, documents specific areas of strength or weakness, and monitors the effectiveness of remedial efforts to improve writing skills.

Features and benefits

  • The TOWL-4 includes two forms (A and B); each form contains seven subtests: Vocabulary, Spelling, Punctuation, Logical Sentences, Sentence Combining, Contextual Conventions, and Story Composition.
  • Three composites are produced: Overall Writing, which uses both spontaneous and contrived formats; Contrived Writing, which uses only contrived formats; and Spontaneous Writing, which evaluates spontaneously composed essays.
  • New normative data were obtained using a sample of 2,505 individuals in 18 states; both grade-based and age-based norms are provided; almost all floor and ceiling effects have been eliminated.
  • Attractive, colorful stimulus pictures are engaging to young writers.