The PAI assesses psychopathological syndromes and provides information relevant for clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and screening for psychopathology. Administration time is up to 40 minutes shorter than that for similar instruments.
e-Manuals and e-Stimulus Books are limited to a single user and device. Please see our e-Manuals FAQ before ordering e-Manuals, and please see our e-Stimulus Books FAQ before ordering e-Stimulus Books.
i-Admins provide on-screen test administration, either in your office or remotely. Purchasers should own the PAI Professional Manual or purchase it before use.
Reports must be purchased separately.
Score Reports provide scores and profiles based on response data from an i-Admin or a paper-and-pencil assessment.
No interpretation provided.
Interpretive Reports provide scores, profiles, and interpretive text based on response data from an i-Admin or a paper-and-pencil assessment.
If purchasing an Interpretive Report, you do not need to purchase the Score Report.
Reliability analyses presented in the manual demonstrate that the PAI exhibits high internal consistency across diverse samples, and that the instrument's results are stable over short-term intervals ranging from 2 to 4 weeks. Specifically, median alpha coefficients and test-retest correlations exceeded 0.80 across the different scales, with results replicated in many subsequent studies. For example, recent empirical evidence provided by Maffly-Kipp and Morey (2023) corroborates these findings, indicating that the PAI maintains notable test-retest reliability over an extended duration of 9 weeks, as evidenced by a median test-retest correlation of 0.79. Notably, elevations on the PAI ICN/INF validity scales at baseline led to much lower test-retest reliability, providing support for the utility of these PAI indicators in detecting problematic responding.
The 344 PAI items constitute 22 nonoverlapping scales covering the constructs most relevant to a broad-based assessment of mental disorders: four validity scales, 11 clinical scales, five treatment scales, and two interpersonal scales. To facilitate interpretation and to cover the full range of complex clinical constructs, 10 scales contain conceptually derived subscales.
Is there a screening version for the PAI?
The accompanying screening test to the PAI is the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS). It is a 22 item screener that takes 5 minutes to administer. Also available is the Personality Assessment Screener-Observer (PAS-O). PAS-O allows you to gain valuable insight from someone close to the client to help screen for clinical issues and determine the need for follow-up testing. If PAS or PAS-O results indicate the need for in-depth testing, the PAI provides information relevant for clinical diagnosis and treatment planning.